Covid-19 has exposed major gaps in the global system for governing preparedness for and responses to pandemics. The Global Health Centre's Governing Pandemics initiative is tracking efforts to address these gaps. This site offers a one-stop information source on six issues that have been identified as requiring reform, and on the proposed pandemic treaty.


For each issue, the main problems, pre-Covid-19 reforms, 2021 recommendations by major international panels, and ongoing policy debates are summarized. Regular updates will be provided as efforts progress.


Pandemics such as Covid-19 pose wicked challenges for global governance. The Global Health Centre is piloting a free, open online course designed for learners who wish to follow and engage with ongoing processes to reform global arrangements for pandemic preparedness and response.

Topics include WHO; treaties; financing: sharing of data and samples; access to vaccines and drugs; trade and travel restrictions; animal-human health; human rights; humanitarian assistance; universal health coverage and geopolitics.


SEPTEMBER 12, 2022: INB #2 - Informal, focused consultations

  • The INB decided that the INB Bureau would conduct informal, focused consultations (IFCs) on selected key issues, and developed a White Paper on the arrangements for the IFCs

  • The IFC on "Legal matters" will take place 21 September from 2-5 PM | Concept Note

  • The IFC on "Operationalizing and achieving equity" will take place 5 October from 12-3 PM.

  • The IFC on "Intellectual property (IP), and access to pandemic response products" will take place 7 October from 2-5 PM.

  • The IFC on "One-Health, AMR, Climate, and Zoonosis" will take place 14 October from 12-3 PM.

JULY 18-22, 2022: INB #2

  • The INB agreed that the pandemic instrument will be legally binding, probably under Article 19 of the WHO Constitution.

  • Member States exchanged views on the working draft of the instrument.

  • The INB decided that the next round of public hearings will take place on 29-30 September 2022.

  • The INB decided to hold its third session on 5-7 December 2022.

  • The INB agreed on a process and timelines for the collection of written inputs on the working draft, regional and bilateral consultations as well as the finalization by the Bureau of a zero draft of the instrument.

  • First working draft of a Pandemic Instrument

  • Options on the legal nature of the instrument

JUNE 6-8, 2022: INB Second Resumed Session

  • The INB considered the potential substantive elements to be included in the scope of the instrument. 

  • The INB Bureau developed a White Paper with a draft annotated outline of the instrument.

  • The INB agreed to discuss the outline from 15-17 June and postpone the public hearings originally scheduled on those dates. A working draft is expected to be published by 11 July, before the second meeting of the INB starting on 18 July.

MAY 22-28, 2022: 75th World Health Assembly and 151st Executive Board

  • The WHA approved the report of the WGPR, and set up a process for the consideration of amendments to the IHR (2005), including the creation of a Working Group on IHR Amendments (WGIHR), to be finalized for the 77th WHA in 2024. The Assembly also adopted amendments to Article 59 of the IHR concerning the deadline for the entry into force of amendments to the Regulations, as well as consequential amendments to Articles 55, 61, 62, and 63.

  • The Assembly also adopted the recommendations of the Working Group on Sustainable Financing to increase assessed contributions gradually to represent 50% of WHO’s core budget by 2030-2031 at the latest.

  • The Executive Board (EB) decided to create a Standing Committee on Health Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response (HEPR), comprised of 14 EB members, intended to convene quickly in the event of a declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and to provide additional oversight to the WHO Health Emergencies Programme.




Policy Brief: Why and how to reflect universal health coverage in the pandemic treaty, UHC2030


Flipbook: Options for a Global Pandemic Treaty

policy brief 6.PNG

Policy Brief: International sharing of pathogens and genetic sequence data under a pandemic treaty, Piselli D


Policy Brief: The European Union and the negotiation of the International Pandemic Treaty, Ruiz Cairó E


Taxonomy of Substantive Proposals for a New Instrument on Pandemic Prevention, Preparedness and Response, Balcazar AB, Burci GL, Strobejko AP



Thematic Deep Dive on a Pandemic Treaty


Financing WHO Well: Low-hanging Fruit or Mission Impossible?


Options, outcomes and opportunities: Reflecting on the WHA Special Session